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Types of Glaucoma: Its Causes & Advanced Treatment Options

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Glaucoma refers to a group of eye disorders that damage the optic nerve of the human eye. It is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide. So, if it’s detected early and treated, it can protect your vision. 

It happens when fluid builds up in the front part of your eyes, which leads to pressure on your eyes. Hence, this pressure on the eyes leads to gradual vision loss through damage to the optic nerve. This pressure is Intraocular Pressure(IOP) or eye pressure at eye specialists in Hyderabad

But there are instances where glaucoma occurs with normal eye pressure. 

Different types of glaucoma

There are four types of glaucoma. They are – 

  1. Open-angle glaucoma: The most common type of glaucoma where you don’t see symptoms easily. It occurs due to resistance build-up in your eye’s drainage canals. 
  2. Closed-angle glaucoma: Also known as narrow-angle glaucoma or angle-closure glaucoma. It is due to a narrow-angle between your iris and cornea. It may also happen when your pupil changes and becomes dilated very quickly. Hence, this blocks the eye’s drainage canals, thereby preventing aqueous fluids from leaving the eyes and leading to increased eye pressure. 
  3. Normal-tension glaucoma: A type of glaucoma which occurs in people who have normal eye pressure. Most of these cases are found in Asians or people of Asian descent. 
  4. Congenital glaucoma: It affects babies. In this case, the drainage canals of the baby’s eye don’t form properly in the mother’s womb. Also referred to as infantile or pediatric glaucoma.

Common symptoms of glaucoma

  • Red eyes
  • Headaches
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Halos around lights
  • Eye pain
  • Low, blurred or narrowed vision
  • Blind spots

Causes and risk factors for glaucoma

  • Very high and very low blood pressure
  • Family history
  • Nearsightedness (for open-angle glaucoma)
  • Farsightedness (for closed-angle glaucoma)
  • Previous eye injuries or surgeries
  • Long-term use of steroids
  • Diabetes
  • Old age, especially 60 +
  • Those having thinner corneas

Treatment of glaucoma

The methods used to treat glaucoma include

  1. Eyedrops: Your eye specialist will prescribe the appropriate eye drops based on the severity of your condition. You may be prescribed more than one eye drop solution if your eye pressure is very less. So, some of these prescription eye drops include 
  1. Beta-blockers
  2. Prostaglandins 
  3. Alpha-adrenergic agonists
  4. Rho kinase inhibitors
  5. Miotic or cholinergic agents
  6. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
  1. Oral medications: Sometimes, eye drops alone may not help bring down eye pressure. So, your eye specialist may prescribe an oral medicine such as a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor.
  2. Laser Therapy: If your eyes are intolerant to eye drops, your eye specialist may recommend a laser therapy known as laser trabeculoplasty. It may also be used if medicines haven’t helped slow glaucoma.

Additionally, the other treatment options include Drainage Tubes, Filtering Surgery and MIGS (Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery). In cases of acute-angle closure glaucoma, a procedure called laser iridotomy is used to relieve eye pressure. 

Following any of these procedures, you would need follow-up visits to your doctor. Later, additional procedures may be needed if the eye pressure begins to rise again.

Maxivision Eye Hospital has the best glaucoma eye specialists in Hyderabad. If you have signs of glaucoma, please contact us at the earliest.

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Ellie Cross
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